Quản lý chất lượng, QA là gì? QC là gì?

Quản lý chất lượng hay kiểm soát chất lượng là các hoạt động có phối hợp để định hướng và kiểm soát một tổ chức về chất lượng. Việc định hướng và kiểm soát về chất lượng nói chung bao gồm lập chính sách chất lượng và mục tiêu chất lượng, hoạch định chất lượng, kiểm soát chất lượng (QC là gì), đảm bảo chất lượng (QA là gì) và cải tiến chất lượng.

Các khái niệm về quản lý chất lượng:

Chất lượng

Là khái niệm đặc trưng cho khả năng thoả mãn nhu cầu của khách hàng. Vì vậy, sản phẩm hay dịch vụ nào không đáp ứng được nhu cầu của khách hàng thì bị coi là kém chất lượng cho dù trình độ công nghệ sản xuất ra có hiện đại đến đâu đi nữa. Đánh giá chất lượng cao hay thấp phải đứng trên quan điểm người tiêu dùng. Cùng một mục đích sử dụng như nhau, sản phẩm nào thoả mãn nhu cầu tiêu dùng cao hơn thì có chất lượng cao hơn.

Kiểm soát chất lượng là gì? QC là gì? (Quality control – QC)

Là một phần của quản lý chất lượng tập trung vào thực hiện các yêu cầu chất lượng. Kiểm soát chất lượng là việc kiểm soát các quá trình tạo ra sản phẩm, dịch vụ thông qua kiểm soát các yếu tố như con người, máy móc, nguyên vật liệu, phương pháp, thông tin và môi trường làm việc.

Kiểm soát chất lượng gồm các việc sau:

* Kiểm soát con người:

– Được đào tạo và có khả năng thực hiện.

– Được truyền đạt và hiểu về công việc phải làm.

– Có đủ tài liệu, hướng dẫn công việc cần thiết.

– Có đủ điều kiện, phương tiện làm việc.

* Kiểm soát phương pháp và quá trình, bao gồm:

– Lập quy trình sản xuất, phương pháp thao tác, vận hành.

– Các quy trình, phương pháp thao tác được tiêu chuẩn hóa

– Quá trình được theo dõi và kiểm soát

– Khi quá trình không ổn định hay xu hướng xấu, cần có hành động khắc phục.

* Kiểm soát đầu vào:

– Nhà cung cấp phải được đánh giá.

– Dữ liệu mua hàng đầy đủ.

– Sản phẩm nhập vào phải được kiểm soát.

* Kiểm soát thiết bị. Thiết bị phải:

– Phù hợp với yêu cầu.

– Được bảo dưỡng.

* Kiểm soát môi trường:

– Môi trường thao tác (ánh sáng, nhiệt độ).

– Điều kiện an toàn.

Đảm bảo chất lượng là gì? QA là gì? (Quality Assurance-QA)

Là một phần của quản lý chất lượng tập trung vào cung cấp lòng tin tới khách hàng rằng các yêu cầu chất lượng sẽ được thực hiện.

Cải tiến chất lượng

Trong quá trình sản xuất, lãng phí thường chiếm một lượng đáng kể trong chi phí sản xuất. Cải tiến chất lượng đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc giảm lãng phí.

Vấn đề chất lượng bao gồm 2 lọai:

-Vấn đề chất lượng cấp tính

Vấn đề chất lượng cấp tính là vấn đề thỉnh thoảng xảy ra, làm thay đổi hiện trạng hệ thống, cần có giải pháp để phục hồi hiện trạng, đó là bài toán kiểm soát chất lượng đã khảo sát ở phần trước (QC).

-Vấn đề chất lượng mạn tính

Vấn đề chất lượng mạn tính thường xuyên xảy ra. Cần có giải pháp để thay đổi hiện trạng, để hệ thống tốt hơn. Đó là bài toán cải tiến chất lượng sẽ được trình bày ở những bài sau.

Việc phân biệt vấn đề chất lượng là quan trọng. Vì thứ nhất mỗi lọai vấn đề có một cách thức, phương pháp giải quyết vấn đề khác nhau. Vấn đề chất lượng cấp tính được giải quyết bằng công cụ kiểm soát chất lượng (7 công cụ QC). Vấn đề chất lượng mạn tính được giải quyết bởi các công cụ cải tiến chất lượng. Thứ đến, vấn đề chất lượng cấp tính thường là vấn đề cấp bách cần được giải quyết ngay. Vấn đề chất lượng mạn tính thường là vấn đề thường xuyên, không cấp bách, khó giải quyết, và DỄ được chấp nhận như một vấn đề không thể tránh được.

Một thực tế nguy hiểm là vấn đề cấp tính thường được ưu tiên giải quyết liên tục mà bỏ quên vấn đề mạn tính. Vấn đề mạn tính là vấn đề gây lãng phí rất lớn. Các tổ chức thường thiếu cơ chế để nhận dạng và lọai bỏ lãng phí (xem 8 loại lãng phí hay 3 dạng lãng phí muda, mura, muri) hay là thiếu cải tiến chất lượng.

Chất lượng  vừa là một cơ hội vừa là thách thức. Nhu cầu khách hàng đối với sản phẩm ngày càng cao, cần không ngừng cải tiến chất lượng  sản phẩm. Cải tiến chất lượng là những họat động trong tổ chức nhằm nâng cao hiệu quả, hiệu suất, giảm chi phí và tạo thêm lợi ích cho tổ chức, khách hàng. Cải tiến chất lượng là nỗ lực không ngừng nhằm duy trì, nâng cao chất lượng sản phẩm với nguyên tắc sản phẩm sau phải tốt hơn sản phẩm trước và khoảng cách giữa các đặc tính sản phẩm với những yêu cầu của khách hàng ngày càng giảm.

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